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Description

A simple tool to generate per-AS traffic graphs from NetFlow/sFlow records by Manuel Kasper mk@neon1.net for Monzoon Networks AG

Programming language: Perl
Tags: Monitoring     Netflow     Sflow    
Latest version: v1.43

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README

AS-Stats v1.6 (2014-09-12)

A simple tool to generate per-AS traffic graphs from NetFlow/sFlow records
by Manuel Kasper mk@neon1.net for Monzoon Networks AG

Update 2017-02-15

I currently don't have time to maintain AS-Stats. There have been some (merged) contributions since the last release, so you may want to download the latest repository version instead of the v1.6 release. Also, Nicolas Debrigode has released a more modern Web UI for AS-Stats: https://github.com/nidebr/as-stats-gui

How it works

A Perl script (asstatd.pl) collects NetFlow v8/v9 AS aggregation records or sFlow v5 samples from one or more routers. It caches them for about a minute (to prevent excessive writes to RRD files), identifies the link that each record refers to (by means of the SNMP in/out interface index), maps it to a corresponding "known link" and RRD data source, and then runs RRDtool. To avoid losing new records while the RRD files are updated, the update task is run in a separate process.

For each AS, a separate RRD file is created as needed. It contains two data sources for each link - one for inbound and one for outbound traffic. In generated per-AS traffic graphs, inbound traffic is shown as positive, while outbound traffic is shown as negative values.

Another Perl script, rrd-extractstats.pl, is meant to run about once per hour. It sums up per-AS and link traffic during the last 24 hours, sorts the ASes by total traffic (descending) and writes the results to a text file. This is then used to display the "top N AS" and other stats by the provided PHP scripts.

Prerequisites

  • Perl 5.10 or newer
  • RRDtool 1.3 or newer (with Perl "RRDs" library)
  • File::Find::Rule module (CPAN)
  • if using sFlow: the Net::sFlow module (CPAN)
  • web server with PHP 5
  • php-sqlite3
  • libdbd-sqlite3-perl
  • one or more routers than can generate NetFlow v8/v9 AS aggregation records or sFlow samples
  • ip2as.pm, for additional lookup (https://github.com/JackSlateur/perl-ip2as)

Considerations

Thoughts on a location for RRD files: RRD files are small in size, but there are a lot of them. You will see a performance gain on a filesystem like XFS over EXT3/4. Consider what filesystem you put the RRD files on if performance is a factor for your needs.

Installation

  • Copy the perl scripts asstatd.pl and rrd-extractstats.pl to the machine that will collect NetFlow/sFlow records

  • Create a "known links" file with the following information about each link that you want to appear in your AS stats:

    • IP address of router (= source IP of NetFlow datagrams)
    • SNMP interface index of interface (use "show snmp mib ifmib ifindex" to find out)
    • a short "tag" (12 chars max., a-z A-Z 0-9 _ only) that will be used internally (e.g. for RRD DS names)
    • a human-readable description (will appear in the generated graphs)
    • a color code for the graphs (HTML style, 6 hex digits)
    • the sampling rate (or 1 if you're not using sampling on the router)

See the example file provided (knownlinks) for the format.
Important: you must use tabs, not spaces, to separate fields!

  • Create a directory to hold per-AS RRD files. For each AS, about 128 KB of storage are required, and there could be (in theory) up to 64511 ASes. AS-Stats automatically creates 256 subdirectories in this directory for more efficient storage of RRD files (one directory per lower byte of AS number, in hex).

  • Start asstatd.pl in the background (or, better yet, write a startup script for your operating system to automatically start asstatd.pl on boot):

    nohup asstatd.pl -r /path/to/rrd/dir -k /path/to/knownlinks &

By default, asstatd.pl will listen on port 9000 (UDP) for NetFlow datagrams, and on port 6343 (UDP) for sFlow datagrams. Use the -p/-P options if you want to change that (use 0 as the port number to disable either protocol). For sFlow, you also need to specify your own AS number with the -a option for accurate classification of inbound and outbound traffic. It's a good idea to make sure only UDP datagrams from your trusted routers will reach the machine running asstatd.pl (firewall etc.).

  • NetFlow only: Have your router(s) send NetFlow v8 or v9 AS aggregation records to your machine. This is typically done with commands like the following (Cisco IOS):

    ip flow-cache timeout active 5
    
    int Gi0/x.y
      ip flow ingress
    
    ip flow-export source <source interface>
    ip flow-export version 5 origin-as
    ip flow-aggregation cache as
     cache timeout active 5
     cache entries 16384
     export destination <IP address of server running AS stats> 9000
     enabled
    

Adjust the number of cache entries if necessary (i.e. if you get messages like "Netflow as aggregation cache is almost full" in the logs).

Note that the version has to be specified as 5, even though the AS aggregation records will actually be v8. Also, setting the global flow cache timeout to 5 minutes is necessary to get "smooth" traffic graphs (default is 30 minutes), as a flow is only counted when it expires from the cache. Decreasing the flow-cache timeout may result in a slight increase in CPU usage (and NetFlow AS aggregation takes its fair share of CPU as well, of course).

Routers with MLS (Multi-Layer Switching, e.g. Cisco 7600 series) require additional commands like the following in order to enable NetFlow processing/aggregation for packets processed in hardware:

    mls aging fast time 4 threshold 2
    mls aging long 128
    mls aging normal 64
    mls flow ip interface-full

For IOS XR, the configuration looks as follows:

    flow exporter-map FEM
     version v9
     !
     transport udp 9000
     source <source interface>
     destination <IP address of server running AS stats> vrf default

    flow monitor-map IPV4-FMM
     record ipv4
     exporter FEM
     cache entries 16384
     cache timeout active 300
    !
    flow monitor-map IPV6-FMM
     record ipv6
     exporter FEM
     cache entries 16384
     cache timeout active 300
    !

    sampler-map SM
     random 1 out-of 10000

    router bgp 100
      address-family ipv4 unicast
       bgp attribute-download
      address-family ipv6 unicast
       bgp attribute-download

For JunOS, the configuration looks as follows:

    forwarding-options {
        sampling {
            input {
                rate 2048;
                max-packets-per-second 4096;
            }
            family inet {
                output {
                    flow-active-timeout 60;
                    flow-server x.x.x.x {
                        port 9000;
                        autonomous-system-type origin;
                        aggregation {
                            autonomous-system;
                        }
                        version 8;
                    }
                }
            }
        }
    }

JunOS IPFIX configuration:

    chassis {
        tfeb {
            slot 0 {
                sampling-instance as-stats;
            }
        }
    }
    interfaces {
        ge-1/0/0 {
            unit 0 {
                family inet {
                    sampling {
                        input;
                        output;
                    }
                }
            }
        }
    }
    forwarding-options {
        sampling {
            instance {
                as-stats {
                    input {
                        rate 2048;
                    }
                    family inet {
                        output {
                            flow-server 192.0.2.10 {
                                port 9000;
                                autonomous-system-type origin;
                                no-local-dump;
                                source-address 192.0.2.1;
                                version-ipfix {
                                    template {
                                        ipv4;
                                    }
                                }
                            }
                            inline-jflow {
                                source-address 192.0.2.1;
                            }
                        }
                    }
                }
            }
        }
    }
    services {
        flow-monitoring {
            version-ipfix {
                template ipv4 {
                    flow-active-timeout 60;
                    flow-inactive-timeout 60;
                    template-refresh-rate {
                        packets 1000;
                        seconds 10;
                    }
                    option-refresh-rate {
                        packets 1000;
                        seconds 10;
                    }
                    ipv4-template;
                }
            }
        }
    }

Huawei NE Netstream (netflow) config:

    slot 3 
     ip netstream sampler to slot self
     ip netstream export host 192.168.200.1 8999
    !
    ip netstream as-mode 32
    ip netstream timeout active 1
    ip netstream timeout inactive 15
    ip netstream export version 9 origin-as
    ip netstream export index-switch 32
    ip netstream export template timeout-rate 2
    ip netstream sampler random-packets 2048 inbound
    ip netstream sampler random-packets 2048 outbound
    ip netstream export source 192.168.200.48
    ip netstream export template option sampler
    ip netstream export template option application-label

    ip netstream aggregation as
    export version 9
    template timeout-rate 2
    ip netstream export source 192.168.200.48
    ip netstream export host 192.168.200.1 8999

If you configured a physical interface, use its IfIndex, if you configured a L3 Vlanif, use this ones IfIndex. It should a double decimal value like 72 or 68, etc. Note the interface should contain following config:

    interface vlanif 120
     ip netstream inbound
     ip netstream outbound
    !
  • sFlow only: Have your router(s) send sFlow samples to your machine. Your routers may need a software upgrade to make them include AS path information for both inbound and outbound packets (this is a good thing to check if your graphs only show traffic on one direction).

  • Wait 1-2 minutes. You should then see new RRD files popping up in the directory that you defined/created earlier on. If not, make sure that asstatd.pl is running, not spewing out any error messages, and that the NetFlow/sFlow datagrams are actually reaching your machine (tcpdump...).

  • Add a cronjob to run the following command every hour:

    rrd-extractstats.pl /path/to/rrd/dir /path/to/knownlinks /path/to/asstats_day.txt

That script will go through all RRD files and collect per-link summary stats for each AS in the last 24 hours, sort them by total traffic (descending), and write them to a text file. The "top N AS" page uses this to determine which ASes to show.

If you want an additional interval for the top N AS (e.g. top N AS in the last 30 days), add another cronjob with the desired interval in hours as the last argument (and another output file of course). Example:

`rrd-extractstats.pl /path/to/rrd/dir /path/to/knownlinks /path/to/asstats_month.txt 720`

Add the interval to the top_intervals array in config.inc (see the example) so that it will appear in the web interface.

Repeat for further intervals if necessary.

It is not recommended to run more than one rrd-extractstats.pl cronjobs at the same time for disk I/O reasons – add some variation in the start minute setting so that the jobs can run separately. For longer intervals than one day, the cronjob frequency can be adjusted as well (e.g. for monthly output, it is sufficient to run the cronjob once a day).

  • Copy the contents of the "www" directory to somewhere within your web server's document root and change file paths in config.inc as necessary.

  • Make the directory "asset" within www writable by the web server (this is used to cache AS-SETs and avoid having to query whois for every request).

  • Wait a few hours for data to accumulate. :)

  • Access the provided PHP scripts via your web server and marvel at the (hopefully) beautiful graphs.

Adding a new link involves adding two new data sources to all RRD files. This is a bit of a PITA since RRDtool itself doesn't provide a command to do that. A simple (but slow) Perl script that is meant to be used with RRDtool's XML dump/restore feature is provided (add_ds_proc.pl, add_ds.sh). Note that asstatd.pl should be stopped while modifying RRD files, to avoid breaking them with concurrent modifications.

Before you follow the instructions below:

  • Make sure you stop asstatd.pl.
  • Take a backup of your whole RRD folder. That is the only way to roll back from this process.
  • This will only add one data source at a time. If you are adding multiple new links, you will need to follow the instructions below once for each new link you add.

Instructions for adding a new link:

  1. Edit your known links file and add your new link (see above for syntax)
    Example:

    10.1.17.10      33      router-newlink  Friendlyname     1F78B4  1
    
  2. Edit the script tools/add_ds_proc.pl

    Change this line:
    my $newlinkname = 'newlink';

    To have the same ID in your knownlinks file:
    my $newlinkname = 'router-newlink';

  3. Edit the script tools/add_ds.sh

    Make sure the path to add_ds_proc.pl is correct.

  4. cd into the rrd folder:
    cd rrd

  5. Run the script
    /path/to/add_ds.sh

    This will take a while (around 20 minutes), so go get a cup of coffee.

  6. Start the collector back up again, and watch for new graphs!

You can also read the RRD files with the command rrdtool info file.rrd, which will show you the data sourced in each one.

Changing the RRAs

By default, the created RRDs keep data as follows:

* 48 hours at 5 minute resolution
* 1 week at 1 hour resolution
* 1 month at 4 hour resolution
* 1 year at 1 day resolution

If you want to change that, modify the getrrdfile() function in asstatd.pl and delete any old RRD files.

Support

A mailing list is available at https://groups.google.com/d/forum/as-stats-users. Please do not send requests for help/support directly to the author.

Donations

  • Immobilien Scout GmbH sponsored the work to add support for multiple configurable stats intervals

To do

  • rrd-extractstats.pl uses a lot of memory and could probably use some optimization.
  • Consider adding a command line parameter to add_ds_proc.pl and add_ds.sh for ease of adding new links.